Friday, January 28, 2011

Super Shine Gems


Our Profile

20 years of experience in exporting from Sri Lanka with well over 1000 shipments done.
Hundreds of fully satisfied American & other Foreign Gem dealers as customers.
Over 20 years experience in Lapidary & Gem Trade and Professional Qualifications of our proprietor - FGA & Diploma in Gemology & Geology from the University of Sri Lanka.

Our Facilities

- Well equipped modern lapidary with latest gem cutting machinery.
- Well experienced, dedicated work force.
- Personal supervision by the proprietor himself.
- All stones supplied by us are precision cut to international standards

Our Specialties

Sapphires:
Precision cut, top quality Single Sapphires in Blue, Pink, Yellow, Purple & White Colors. High Value Single Stones, Centre Stones, Investment Stones.
Top Quality Calibrated Sapphires from 2m/4x3m to 7m/9x7m , Rainbow Sapphires Sets,Color Matched / Color Graduated Sapphire Sets.

Other Precious Gems:
Fine Quality Star Sapphires, Star Rubies, Chrysoberyl Cat's Eyes, Alexendrites etc etc.

Semi - Precious Stones:
Spinels, Rhodolites, Hessonites, Pyrope Garnets, Zircons, Tourmalines, Chrysoberyls, Apatite, Topaz, Amethysts, Citrines etc. Mostly as 5ct up single stones , ...
.

Services Offered (Contract Cutting & Heat Treatment) :
Contract cutting of your Rough Stones.
Maximum care, highest yield, finest quality assured.
Very competitive rates, prompt service & Cutting of any complex faceting design or any fancy shape, done to perfection.

Heat Treatment services of Sapphires available.

Foreign Buyers Visiting Sri Lanka:
With our long experience, expertise & contacts in Gem Trade, we are able to help Foreign Gem Buyers visiting Sri Lanka to find all their requirements at most competitive prices.

Address:
62, Wijerama Road, Udahamulla, Nugegoda, Sri Lanka.

Phone:
94 11 2803 706
94 11 2803 961


Fax:
94 11 2802 029
Attn: Super Shine Gems

E-mail:
info@supershinegems.net

Monday, January 24, 2011

Mushan International


Known for the quality and genuine products, Mushan International is the powerhouse for mining, cutting and exporting highest quality sapphires from Sri Lanka.

Started with a passion for fine gem stones, we have been in the business for almost three decades now. Our offices are located in many parts of the island in order for us to be close as possible to the mines. We purchase gems directly from the miners. This enables our prices to be extremely competitive.

Our relationship to the miners is privileged and our personal background gives us a definite competitive advantage. As soon as a special piece is mined, it's most likely destination is our office. We have access to all sorts of gems and qualities and have strong buying partners in Tanzania and Madagascar.

Come to us for a lasting partnership.


Mushan International
Mushan Tower, Level 10,
528, R.A. de Mel Mawatha (a.k.a. Duplication Road),
Colombo 3, Sri Lanka.
Tel: +(94) 11 2554615, 2554616, 2554617
Fax: +(94) 11 2554333
gems@mushaninternational.com

Mincraft Company - Gemstone, Jewellery & Lapidary


Mincraft Company was established in 1989 . The main line of buisness is exports of Gemstones, Jewellery & Lapidary Service.

The company is founded & managed by Gamini Zoysa , a Geologist ( MSc in Gelogogy , Mos) , with Post graduate Studies in Mineralogy ( The Netherlands ) & Graduate Gemmologist G.G. ( G.I.A -USA ) F.G.A ( U.K.) " Institute of Gemmological Sciences" has also been set up as a subsidary under Mincraft Co. for the gemmological research work, publications, & also conducts seminars & gem mining tours.

Every year more than 50 persons are taking the gem tours ..

Beauty Lanka Gems & Jewellery (Pvt) Ltd

Finding the right size and cut is easy when you know where to look. Your direct source for Sapphires in all Colours in free size and caliberated.


Beauty Lanka Gems & Jewellery (Pvt)Ltd
124/12, Dudly Senanayake Avenue,
Dehiwela,Sri Lanka
Phone: ++94 11 4 203 291,
Fax: ++94 11 2 730 213,
Mobile: ++94 77 7 326 715,

A.A. Jewel

We constantly search for uncommon, rare, exceptional and distinctive
minerals , through the markets of Burma, Thailand ( the Largest
international supply house in the World ) and Canada, and by networking with
our customers , partners and suppliers to find great stock or rare materials
, at mine direct prices.
Our own Gem Cutters and Gold Smiths allow us to offer unique items , so you
receive an individual work of what we consider ART, in every piece we make
available.
Offering everything from the common place , to items that you will not find
anywhere else.
We offer a one stop shop , for all your needs , if you don't see it listed
in our web pages , just click on the CONTACT US Button to see if we have
what you are looking for in stock.
Specializing in Natural Materials , we do not hide behind Government
regulations, and will always fully disclose any treatments that any of our
Gems have been subjected to.
Synthetic materials are also offered here , mostly from Russia, they are Lab
Grown and of the finest quality available.
After Collecting For 37+ Years, Through 17 Countries I Have Come To Realize
That The Average Collector, The Serious Artisan , and Even Larger Companies
Have Few Places To Turn To For Gems & Rough of Various Qualites And
Characters at Fare Prices & Availability In Quantities To Suit Their Needs.
We Are Here To Offer You Honestly Represented Goods At FAIR Prices.

Specializing In :
* RUBY ( BURMA, MOGOK )
* MOLDAVITE ( CZECH )
* SERAPHINITE
* SPINEL ( BURMA )
* SAPPHIRE ( BURMA )
* TURQUOISE ( CHINA / MEXICO )
* ASTROPHYLLITE
* AMETHYST
* NATURAL STONES & GEMS

GREAT PRICES , PERSONAL SERVICE , EXTENSIVE KNOWLEDGE , IN-HOUSE FACETING
and GOLD SMITHS

Sunday, January 23, 2011

US Lanka Gem

Gem Cutting Services and Custom Jewelry Making Services
For more information about our gems & jewelry www.usgemlanka.com


Serving The American Market Since 1980

Please visit our Booth # 2202
GJX TUCSON GEM TRADE SHOW 2011
(From Feb 1 - 6, Sri Lanka Pavilion)
Gem & Jewelry Exchange, 411 West Congress, Tucson AZ 85701.
Tel: (520) 882-4200

* Premium Quality Faceting - Calibrated or Free Sizes.
* Maximum Yield.
* Prompt Delivery.
* Large or Small Orders.
* Reasonable Charges.

If you only have few stones, we can do these for you at rates that are very competitive.

Submit requirements to : Lion Dr. S. P. Karunanayake, MJF,
PhD. , MD (M.A), AJP (GIA)
Miner / Lapidarist / Gemologist
Accredited Professional Jeweler of the GIA (USA)
2A, Charles Place, Dehiwala. Sri Lanka.
Email: uslankagem@sltnet.lk
Skype: uslankagem
Tel: +94112725376

Wednesday, January 19, 2011

Asteriated Sapphires (Star rubies and star sapphires)


Among the corundum family are also asteriated rubies and sapphires as mentioned earlier. Asterism is a star like reflection effect caused by certain minerals within the host corundum. These are microscopic acicular mineral inclusions of special orientation. Very often these mineral inclusions are rutile (TiO2) in the form of crystallized needles. Asterism in corundum is more common and more effective than in most other minerals that do display this phenomenon. The inclusions are oriented within the stone in a particular relation to the vertical axis of the corundum crystal (c-axis). Such stones, when cut 'en cabochon', display a special reflection effect in the form of a six, or in rare instances a twelve rayed star on the cabochon surface. An interesting and common observation is, that in the case of a twelve rayed star, the 'silk' that produces it is bronze coloured causing a 'schiller' effect at the base of the stone. The asterism or the star effect is best highlighted when observed under an overhead light source. In this connection it is interesting to note the reference made by Paul Desautels of the Smithsonian Institute (1965) to a four starred sapphire in the Institute's collection. This gem is said to be from Sri Lanka.

Theoretically, asterism could occur in any colour variety of corundum but this phenomenon could be most highlighted and made conspicuous only in the colour varieties which could in effect create a colour contrast to the silvery reflection effect of the star. The ideal stone should also be semi-transparent, translucent or opaque. The star effect is most attractive in rubies and sapphires of darker hues. Asterism has also been seen in yellow and brownish yellow sapphires but the colour contrast is so little that the star effect is not prominent. In the ideal stones the rays should be properly centered showing uniformity of the angular intersections and the rays should be perfectly straight, each ray extending more than half way down towards the girdle and the individual rays narrowing to an end. The rays should be sharp and well defined, rather than being broad, and should merge imperceptibly into the stone. The rays should be perfectly white or silvery without being affected by the colour of the stone. The stones are best if these do not display colour banding or zoning when viewed from above. In some, immobile 'silk' (geuda) is seen as whitish patches scattered within the stone. These spoil the appearance of the stone. Accordingly a top quality stone will carry a sharply defined ray against a pleasing colour, and such stones are most favoured. The combination of such features are considered rare. Nevertheless, Sri Lanka is singularly reputed for having asteriated corundum which combine these features.

Although certain rough material from certain localities in Sri Lanka show clear indications of asterism, these do not produce this desired result when polished for no explicable reason. This is perhaps a locality trait. Instead this material may sometimes display 'spot' asterism, which is comparatively not of much value in trading circles. Quite many rough stone dealers have experienced this and if the rough stones are known to be from any such known areas the dealers exercise tremendous caution.

It is said of asteriated corundum that, a combination of a perfect body colour, the ideal degree of transparency and a perfectly sharp and centered star is a rare occurrence in nature. A star sapphire of blue colour and of exquisite beauty from Sri Lanka weighing 392.92 carats is presently in the collection of the National Gem and Jewellery Authority.

Gemstone set jewelry for each year of marriage

Year | Gift Stone
  1. Gold
  2. Garnet
  3. Pearls
  4. Blue Topaz
  5. Sapphire
  6. Amethyst
  7. Onyx
  8. Tourmaline
  9. Lapis Lazuli
  10. Diamond
  11. Turquoise
  12. Jade
  13. Citrine
  14. Opal
  15. Ruby
  16. Peridot
  17. Garnet
  18. Chrysoberyl | Cat's Eye
  19. Aquamarine
  20. Emerald
  21. Iolite
  22. Spinel
  23. Imperial Topaz
  24. Tanzanite
  25. Silver
30. Pearl
35. Emerald
40. Ruby
45. Sapphire
50. Diamond
55. Alexandrite
60. Diamond
70. Sapphire
80. Ruby

Indian names for precious and semi precious gemstones

















GemstoneColor/TypeIndian Name
Beryl
Emerald
Aquamarine
Maragatham, Panna, Barivadra vaiduryam, lasunya manik, Manikyam, Yacut
Chrysoberyl
Ruby
Violet, Deep red, red+black, fissured, yellowish, catechu, pukraj, white, yellow, blue, red, red/yellow, red/black
Nalgandhi, Nilanga Cholabarna, Banansi, Tanjavat, Gulgum, Khayra, safed, Zurud, Singli
Sapphire
Coral
Diamond
Rose red, green, blue, yellow, white hard
Nilam, Nila Vidruna, Hira, Golabi, Bunuspati, Nilabajra, Basanti, Guruch
Garnet

Putkum, lairi, Chunri
Jade

Pilu
Pearl

Moti, Mukta
Lapis Lazuli

Lajward
Opal

Dhudia Patthar, Gomed
Sannible


Quartz

Sputikam
Spinel

Saganshika
Topaz

Pushparag, Pukhraj
Tourmaline

Gandharva
Turquoise

Firoza
Zircon

Gomedh, Gulmidak

Friday, January 14, 2011

GJX Tucson Gem & Jewelry Trade Show 2011

The GJX show will be held in downtown Tucson

February 1st through February 6th, 2011

Hours: Tuesday 1st thru Saturday 5th - 10:00am to 6:00pm
Sunday 6th - 10:00am to 4:00pm*

List of Sri Lankan Exhibitors

Anura Wijemanne Associates
Booth: 2302
No. 50, Galle Road
Colombo 3 Sri Lanka
Phone: 94-11-331834
Fax: 94-11-331833
Email: awaassociates@yahoo.com
Website:
Product Description: All shapes and sizes of Sapphires, Rubies, Spinels, Garnets, Aquamarines, Beryls, Tourmalines, Moonstones, Alexandrites, Cat's Eye, Star Stones, Lapidary service.

Athula Jayatunge
Booth: 2204
Helsinkistr. 38
Muchen Germany 81829
Phone: 49-89-43737740
Fax: 49-89-437737741
Email: jayatunge@t-online.de
Website:
Product Description: Gemstones from Sri Lanka. Rare Gemstones.

Beauty Lanka Gems & Jewellery (pvt) Ltd.
Booth: 2005
124/12 Dudley Senanayake Avenue
Dehiwela Sri Lanka
Phone: 94-11-4203291
Fax: 94-11-2730213
Email: mudithadela@beautylanka.com
Website: www.beautylanka.com
Product Description: Fine cut Sapphires in free size and calibrated. Sapphire-set jewelry, semi-precious gems and stones.

Bright Gems Intl (Pvt) Ltd.
Booth: 909
No. 2, 4th Floor, Temple Lane
Colombo-3 Sri Lanka
Phone: 94-11-2506942
Fax: 94-11-2506943
Email: brightgems@eureka.lk
Website:
Product Description: All kinds of clean and well cut Sapphires - calibrated and free sizes, as well as semi-precious gemstones, Gold and Silver jewelry.

Chanmel Gems (Ceylon) Co.
Booth: 2601
42/11, Bodhiwardanarama Rd., Goluwavilla
Ratnapura Sri Lanka
Phone: 94-11-777308929
Fax: 94-11-452222129
Email: chandimalm@yahoo.com
Website:
Product Description: Cut and polished precious and semi precious gemstones.

Collectors Counts
Booth: 2301B
54. Goods Shed Road
Ratnapura Sri Lanka
Phone: 94-45-2222112
Fax: 94-45-2225206
Email: collectorscounts@gmail.com
Website:
Product Description: Gemlanka - Blue Sapphire, Ruby, Pink Sapphire, Padparadsha Sapphire, Alexandrite, bright Spinel, rare gems, Taaffeite variety of crystals - Sapphire - fine colorful pyramids & collector's delights.

Colombo Gemstones
Booth: 2301A
29 1/2, 33rd Lana, Wellawatte
Colombo 06 Sri Lanka
Phone: 94-77-3413161
Fax: 94-11-2582282
Email: razmo65@gmail.com
Website:
Product Description: We are one of the leading exporters of Sri Lankan Sapphires, Rubies, Catseyes, Stars Sapphires and Semi-Precious Stones.

Crest Gems Ltd.
Booth: 2501B
142 1st Floor, Galle Road
Colombo 3 Sri Lanka
Phone: 94 11 2327165
Fax: 94 11 2447628
Email:
Website:
Product Description: Precious gemstones.

D.B. Enterprise (Pvt.) Ltd.
Booth: 2101
17, Vijaya Rd.,
Mt. Lavinia Sri Lanka
Phone: 94-11-2716999
Fax: 94-11-2732334
Email: dbenter@sltnet.lk
Website:
Product Description: Professional cutters & exporters of precious, semi-precious, rare stones & handmade jewelry.

Engelo Gems (pvt) Ltd.
Booth: 2201
No. 78/1, Main Street
Battaramulla Sri Lanka
Phone: 94-11-4403551
Fax: 94-11-2875612
Email: egems100@sltnet.lk
Website:
Product Description: Specialists in Rainbow colored Sapphire suites and semi-precious suites.

Glitz Gems & Lapidary
Booth: 2402
W.T.C. Colombo Shop No. 11
Ratnapura Sri Lanka
Phone: 94-77-3772972
Fax: 94-11-2437001
Email: glitzgems@gmail.com
Website: www.glitzgems.lk
Product Description: Sapphires - free sizes and calibrated stones.

Hi Line Trading (pvt) Ltd.
Booth: 2502
496 R.A. De Mel Mawatha
Colombo 3 Sri Lanka
Phone: 94-112589200
Fax: 94-112508641
Email: ifraz.haqque@gmail.com
Website:
Product Description: Sri Lankan Sapphires, Brazilian Alexandrites, Fine Jewelry.

Jayakody Gems (pvt) Ltd.
Booth: 2102
No. 80/A Pepiliyana Rd.
Nedimala, Dehiwala Sri Lanka
Phone: 94-112761010
Fax:
Email: jayagems@stmail.lk
Website:
Product Description: All kinds of stones from Sri Lanka

K.K. Gem Investments, Inc.
Booth: 1007
510 West 6th Street, #720
Los Angeles, CA 90014
Phone: 800-332-2289
Fax: 213-622-1132
Email: kkgi@sbcglobal.net
Website:
Product Description: Dealers and wholesalers of fine Sri Lankan gemstones. Specializing in blue, pink, yellow and multi-color Sapphires, Padparadsha, Star Sapphires, Star Rubies, Chrysoberyl Cat's Eye and Alexandrites.

Khiard Jeweler's
Booth: 2104
1 Stamboul Place
Colombo 3 Sri Lanka
Phone: 94-11-2372783
Fax: 94-11-2370711
Email: mkmizabith@sltnet.lk
Website:
Product Description: Loose gemstones.

Mincraft Company
Booth: 2501A
No. 92/4A, Templers Road
Mount Lavinia Sri Lanka
Phone: 94-112726796
Fax: 94-112733693
Email: mincraft@slt.lk
Website: www.mincraft.com
Product Description: Lapidary service, Sapphires - Blue and fancy colors. Free calibrated sizes, Alexandrite, Cat's Eye, Spinel, Semi-Precious and unusual gems.

Mushan International
Booth: 2401B
Level 10, Mushan Tower
528, R.A. De Mel Mawatha
Colombo 3 Sri Lanka
Phone: 94-11-2554615-7
Fax: 94-11-2554333
Email: gems@mushaninternational.com
Website: www.mushaninternational.com
Product Description: All kinds of high quality Sapphires.

NS Gem Exporters (pvt) Ltd./Lanka Rare Gems
Booth: 2401A
#296 - 3/6, 3rd Floor
Galle Road
Colombo 00600 Sri Lanka
Phone: 94-11-4522551
Fax: 94-11-255-9823
Email: rana@slt.lk
Website:
Product Description: Calibrated Sapphire and free size: blue, yellow, pink Sapphires, semi-precious stones and rainbow color line.

Ran Ruwan Co. (Pvt.) Ltd.
Booth: 2411
382/4, Sri Nandasara MW.,
Hokandara North Sri Lanka
Colombo Sri Lanka
Phone: 94-71-8146978
Fax: 94-11-2561851
Email: ranruwan@sltnet.lk
Website:
Product Description: Precious & Semi-precious gemstones; gemstone studded 18K yellow & white Gold jewellery and Silver jewellery.

Rohitha Gems (Pvt.) Ltd.
Booth: 2602
Rohitha Gems Building
Paradise Industrial Estate
Paradise, Kuruwita Sri Lanka
Phone: 94-45-2262694
Fax: 94-45-22-62298
Email: rohithaperera25@yahoo.com
Website:
Product Description: Colored stones.

Shimla International
Booth: 2100
34, Yusuf Avenue
China Fort
Beruwala Sri Lanka
Phone: 94-342276553
Fax: 94-344288155
Email: nowfer@wow.lk
Website:
Product Description: All kinds of Sapphires, blue, pink, yellow, white, orange; Padparadscha, star and C.E.; Ruby, Alexandrite, semi-precious gemstones.

Super Shine Gems
Booth: 1425
62, Wijerama Road, Udahamulla
Nugegoda Sri Lanka
Phone: 94-112803706
Fax: 94-112802029
Email: supershinegems@yahoo.com
Website: www.supershinegems.com
Product Description: Finest quality Sri Lankan Blue, Pink, Yellow, Purple and White Sapphires, Padparadscha, Star Sapphires, Star Rubies, Cat's Eyes, Alexandrite, Spinel, Garnet, Chrysoberyl and Zircon. Single stones, calibrated sizes & free sizes. Also Rainbow and other Sapphire sets of exquisite designs.

US Lanka Gem
Booth: 2202
2 A Charles Place
Dehiwala Sri Lanka
Phone: 94-11-2725376
Fax: 94-11 2761772
Email: uslankagem@sltnet.lk
Website: www.uslankagem.com
Product Description: Gems and jewelry. We specialize in Sr Lankan Blue Sapphires (Ceylon Blue Sapphires) - calibrated and free sizes.

Visaka Gems & Jewellery
Booth: 632
21/B Marapana
Ratnapura Sri Lanka
Phone: 94-45-2229199
Fax: 94-45-2229371
Email: visakagems@sltnet.lk
Website:
Product Description: Sri Lankan Sapphires in Blue, Pink, Yellow, White, Purple; Star Sapphires and Cat's Eye; semi-precious stones; Silver jewelry; White Gold jewelry with Sri Lankan Sapphires.

Thursday, January 13, 2011

US Lanka Gem to participate in GJX Tucson Show

US Lanka Gem (www.uslankagem.com) will be participating on the GJX Tucson Gem & Jewelry Show this year. You can buy real natural ceylon gemstones at this event. Please visit www.uslankagem.com for more information.

New website launched for Gem Cottage

The new website of Gem Cottage (www.gemcottage.com) has been launched today. I created this website with fully e-commerce integration with PayPal. There are hundreds of natural Ceylon Sapphires and other gemstones listed for sale in this website.

Please visit www.gemcottage.com to see their collection. Some times all the gems will not uploaded as yet. Gem Cottage sells gemstones for decades and due to global market collapse, their online sales were stopped and started the development of the new website. Now the website is much easy to navigate and buy.

www.gemcottage.com

Ruby - Gemstones found in Sri Lanka

Corundum of a red colour are identified as rubies. Being corundum these have all the optical, physical and chemical properties of the mineral. These also have negligible quantities of chromic oxide in their compositions which do not in any way affect the general chemical formula. It is this element, chromic oxide which is responsible for the red colour of ruby. The colour in rubies could be in various shades and tones and is dependent on the quantity of chromic oxide present, its ratio in relation to other elements in the composition, and the nature of its distribution. The depth and intensity of color is related to these factors while the distribution of colour in ruby could be patchy, banded or uniform. The presence of chromic oxide in the correct proportions, in the desired quantities, in the correct manner of distribution within a glassy textured transparent body, free from flaws and inclusions produced the ruby of optimum quality. Such stones are most beautiful and are highly prized. In Sri Lanka the occurrence of rubies are comparatively rare in comparison to blue sapphires although adequate supplies are available to cater to the market. Superlative quality rubies from Miyanmar (Buruma) hace earned universal acclaim as the best in comparison to rubies from other regions of the world. This statement does not in any way express the idea that there is no exception to the rule. Other localities have occasionally shown up rubies of exceptional beauty that compare well with or even surpass the beauty of their Myanmar counterparts. Sri Lanka has proved this point although such occurrences have been rare. Such stones have always been from the Uda – Walawe region, which can be considered as the locality for rubies that compare most favorably with the best from Miyanmar.

Determining the possible locality of a ruby by colour and appearance alone would certainly lead to confusion and controversy. To eliminate such controversy other factors like mineral inclusions and twinning planes are of importance and should be taken into consideration. Rubies are generally sensitive to light purely because the sensitivity of the colouring element, chromium; and their luster appearance could differ according to the nature of the light under which they are observed. It is best that rubies are observed under natural daylight conditions, always remembering the fact that daylight conditions are different in different parts of the world; which factor could consequently creat a different colour sensation on the human eye.

The colour in rubies could vary from pale to a deep and intense red; the colours ranging from pale rose red to a deep red. Most Sri Lankan varieties are of a pinkish red and display a tinge of purple which factor perhaps is sufficient to betray to the experienced person that the stones are of Sri Lankan origin. These purplish tints are attributed to the presence of iron in addition to chromic oxide in the composition. Such stones when subject to intense heat would either lose or diminish the purplish tint thereby highlighting the principle colour, red. In his book “precious Stones”, Bauer (1971) states that “ the shade of colour most admired is the deep pure carmine red with a slightly bluish tine.” It is not uncommon to notice this faint bluish tinge in this category of rubies. This colour is referred to as ‘pigeon blood red’ in gem circles. Furthermore, the colour distribution in rubies is invariably either patchy or banded with colour bands alternating with the colourless. The patchy colour distribution in the ruby could be remedied by subjecting such stones to intense heat. It has been noted that the colour in such stones when gradually heated gets distributed as a final outcome. Flawless rubies of a deep intense red with uniform distribution of colour and with a pleasing tone are extremely rare and consequently very valuable.

A currently prevailing controversial question is ; where lies the demarcation line between the ruby as defined and the pink sapphire? Difference of opinion is rife. But sooner or later this issue has to be resolved. In this publication it is not intended to discuss this subject in detail. Nevertheless it is necessary to highlight a few vital and important opinions as put together by Widess (1981) in ‘Jewelers Circular Keystones: February 1981 ‘which are as follows;

The gemological Institute of America, “Only transparent corundum of medium light to dark tones of red to purple hues is properly called ruby. Very light tones of red are correctly called pink sapphires. Even some stones that are light rather than very light in tone are properly called pink sapphires. A very intense red colour is necessary to justifiy the use of thee term ruby’.

Peter T. Sciambra, Director, International Gemological Institute, “I.G.I.’ s definition is basically the same as that of the G. I. A. except that it leaves out the phrase ‘ a very intense red’ colour is necessary.”

Charles I. Carmona, Vice President, and Guild Laboratories “The guidelines for a ruby are very similar to G. I. A. except we add brownish red”.

Thomas E. Tashy Jr. (G. G.: F. G. A.) Director, Independent Gemological Laboratory says “We mostly adhere to the G. I. A. guidelines. We differ in very light stones which we call pink rubies instead of pink sapphires.”

David Widess (G. G.) of Widess & Sons, Los Angeles says “Any corundum of reddish hue no matter what lightness or intensity, tint, shade or tone shold be called a ruby.”

Dr Earl Anderson ph.D, President of the Gemological Research Group Inc. says that he is in “perfect agreement with and shares the opinion of David Widess” and goes on to say that any corundum of reddish hue no matter what lightness of intensity, tint, shade or tone should be called a ruby.”

Herbert Smith (1930) in his publication “Gemstones” states that “the tint of red stones (rubies) varies considerably in depth. Jewellers term them pink sapphires when pale but of course no sharp distinction can be drawn between them and rubies.’ Richard Hughes of the Asian Institute of Gemological Sciences after making reference to historical background explicitly states “In light of the strong historical evidence suggesting that the term ruby was originally understood to include all red to slightly bluish red corundum from the very lightest to deepest tones, A.I.G.S. is abandoning the use of pink sapphire as an individual variety of corundum. As of this moment we will no longer use the term, either in our educational programmes or on the gem identification reports issued by our laboratory.”

From all this the reader will realize the nature of the controversy. Even at present we are still grappling with this issue and what should be stated is, that this is not so much a scientific or a gemological problem. After all, this nomenclature is based on colour alone an as such the verdict is with the gem trading circles. There is reason to believe that Sri Lanka is the original source of the variety identified as pink sapphires.

As a rule, ruby deposits as such have not been specifically localized in Sri Lanka and are found in association with other members of the corundum family. However, as indicated earlier the stones of better quality have been more often than not found within

the Embilipitiya- Uda- Walawe environs.

Blue Sapphire - Gemstones found in Sri Lanka


Blue corundum in all shades are identified as sapphires. Sri Lanka sapphires are universally renowned for their magnificent quality and the large sizes in which these sometimes occur. Every possible shade of blue is represented among sapphires of Sri Lanka, the various shades ranging from the palest to the darkest. Flawless, transparent sapphires of a deep blue colour are highly prized. High quality blue sapphires from Sri Lanka are reputed for having a pleasing tone of colour, whatever the shade and are of remarkable transparency. In superior quality material the degree of transparency is very high and its clarity is excellent. These features in combination could produce a very high Iustre which in turn imparts a sparkle to the gemstone. Although the distribution of colour in sapphire is characteristically patchy, an apparent colour evenness is seen because of its highly transparent body. Sapphires of over ten carats with all the above features combined are not uncommon in Sri Lanka. Comparatively, stones with such combination of characteristics are rarely seen in other localities. The smaller commercial grades are more abundant.

The reputation for producing the world’s best blue sapphire has shifted from time to time different localities like Kashmir in India and Pilin in Cambodia. Kashmir is no longer productive and high quality blue sapphires from Pilin are now seldom seen. Over the years Sri Lanka has graduated to this prestigious position of begin the producer of the world’s best sapphires. Today there is undisputed, unchallenged acceptance that Sri Lanka’s blue sapphires of high quality are supreme.

These superior gemstones while carrying high price tags in international markets, also hold superlative positions among connoisseurs and those who seek the best. The most desired colour and tone for a sapphire has been described as an intense corn flower blue with a ‘velvety’ Iustre. The Combination of such features though rare, is the pride of this country. the colouring oxides responsible for this colour are basically iron and Titanium. Very often the colour pattern is in the form of regularly arranged colour bands alternative with the colourless, or it may be that the colour regions are irregular and patchy. In keeping with scientific phenomena, the colour concentration is high in the direction of the optic axis and as such, a crystal could display different shades of colour like palace blue, greenish blue and deep blue when viewed in different directions. These factors have to be taken into consideration when faceting. Blue sapphires of Sri Lanka as in certain other countries tend to display regional traits to a very great extent. In sapphires of certain regions the greenish blue tinge is more pronounced and conspicuous than in others, when viewed in a direction perpendicular to the optic axis. Some others when viewed under an artificial light source display violet and reddish tints creating an apparent colour change effect. Textural differences are also seen. Still others show remarkable improvement and an increase in colour and luster in the course of polishing. This is particularly so in the case of sapphires from a place called Rambukka (close to Rakwana) In such cases rough gemstones buyers do not hesitate to offer higher prices for material from this locality especially if they are aware that the gemstones offered for sale are from mines reputed for these characteristics. Sapphires from a region close to Matara are typically of a deep dark blue colour almost black and are glassy textured. These have earned the name ‘Matara Sapphire’. It is well known that certain sapphires when subject to heat lose their colour. Completely while others respond favorably either producing or enhancing their colour. In still others heat could spread out the colour within the stone. Great skill and care is necessary in conducting such heating operations.

Tuesday, January 11, 2011

History of Gemstones

Even in antiquity as men gazed at the shapes of crystals, whose origins they could not begin to understand or explain, it is not surprising that it was thought that these fascinating formations held supernatural powers. Fantastic origins have been suggested over the years for stones...rock crystal was ice permanently frozen by intense cold...
hyacinth (a precious stone of the ancients sometimes thought to be the sapphire ) was produced by the earth's extreme aridity combined with the sun's powerful action...amber was thought to be a product of lynxes' urine and birds' tears.

In the Stone Age, primitive men became interested in gold, which was relatively easy to melt and to cast. From this the first pieces of real jewelry were made. Silver and copper were mined during the Bronze Age and jewels, ornaments and cult statuettes were made from copper, bronze and rocks of unusually striking color or shape. The ancient Egyptians commonly inlaid gold and silver with semi-precious stones such as carnelian, jasper, amethyst, turquoise and lapis lazuli. A particularly popular jewelry item was the signet ring and many of the motifs used, such as the lotus, falcon, serpent and eye, were derived from religious symbols. Scarabs, representations of the scarab beetle carved in stone, were also popular in ancient Egypt and Rome. The Greeks made ornaments of plain gold until around 400 BC when a variety of gems and cameos (precious and semi-precious gemstones carved in relief on one layer with another contrasting layer as
background) were used. Roman jewelry was massive with ropes of pearls highly prized and Medieval jewelry included very large brooches. During the Renaissance, men and women wore gold chains, jeweled collars, and pendants, often designed and sometimes even rendered by noted artists. Ornaments crowded with stones were worn to excess in the late 17th century . Jewelry was almost superseded in the late l8th century by decorative buttons, watches and snuffboxes, but the 19th century brought the revival of the bracelet and the cameo. When factory production of jewelry began, artistry declined and costume jewelry was introduced by Gabrielle Chanel in the 2Oth century. However, there has been renewed interest in hand-wrought jewelry since the craft revival of the 1960's.

Stones were also widely used in the production of seals, carved dies or stamps used to mark documents or objects with a sign of official origin or ownership. Ancient seals were generally engraved with a design to be impressed on wax or damp clay. In China, however, seals carved in relief were used with ink as stamps, representing an early form of printing. In ancient Greece and Rome, seal rings and portrait seals engraved with the owner's likeness became widespread. Although the use of seals declined after the fall of Rome, it was revived during the l2th century and from then until the l8th century, heads of church and state and various civic dignitaries used seals carved with heraldic designs to stamp their documents.

Crystal balls have been produced -and highly prized -throughout recorded history. The Japanese have the highest respect for rock crystal, which they consider to be the symbol for perfection and purity, and Japanese craftsmen have produced crystal balls for centuries...the perfect jewel cut into the perfect form. The Japanese believe that the dragon is the supreme creative power and early thought was that rock crystal was formed from the condensation of the dragon' s breath. Crystal balls from high-quality
rock crystal found in the Alps were highly prized in Europe as well, though for different reasons. In Europe crystal gazing was used not only as an aid to foreseeing the future, but as a stimulus to the mind. Musicians, authors and even politicians have benefited from self-hypnosis induced by crystal gazing.

Heal and Rejuvenate with Gem Therapy

The History of Gem Therapy

Precious gems were highly valued for their esoteric healing abilities in ancient Persia, India, Greece and Jewish cultures. There is evidence of systematic mining in Egypt over 7,000 years ago, as well as in the Oxus Valley of Afghanistan.

Ancient Indian scriptures known as the "Vedas" contain the most complete descriptions and scientific knowledge of gemstones, their description, potencies and prescriptions for effective usage. Instructions on their uses are found especially in the texts of the “Jyotish texts” and the “Guruda Purana”. Over 5,000 years old, they give detailed descriptions of the uses of gemstones as remedial measures to counter imbalances in an astrological horoscope by the wearing of gems on the body. Uses of gems in preparing elixirs and medicines to be taken internally were also spoken of.


Historically, Kings and Queens from around the world wore gems on their crowns, originally as a means of expanding their influence throughout the kingdom. Most crowns sat upon the head so that the main gem in the center would touch the middle of the forehead (third eye).

Our Western system of birthstones traces its origin to the Breastplate of the High Priest, also known as the Breastplate of Aaron. In the Bible, Moses gave specific rules governing the “Breastplate of Judgement” which was set with 12 gems. Each gemstone was engraved with a name of one of the tribes of Israel. To this day gems adorn the miter of the Pope and Bishops of the Christian churches.

During the renaissance period in
Europe, the great physician, Paracelsus used medicines made from crushed gems. Unfortunately, after this period, most of the herbal doctors and their use of gemstone healing disappeared.

Over the past two hundred years allopathic medicine put a stranglehold on any advancement in holistic medicines. Throwing the baby out with the bath water, they rejected everything that was not “scientifically” proved.


Only now are they beginning to see the potential held in crystals and gems, quartz crystals are used in timepieces, rubies in lasers and diamonds in super computers.

THE DYEING OF PRECIOUS STONES.

The possibility of giving artificial colours to Precious Stones was not unknown to the Romans. Pliny relates that recipes ware offered for sale which professed to turn Rock-Crystals into Emeralds and other transparent gems ; that in India many Precious Stones were produced by dyeing Rock-Crystal, and that the Ethiopians deposited the pale Carbuncle in vinegar for fourteen days, when it was alleged that it would shine brilliantly for a similar number of months.
Respecting the artificial colouring of certain Agates, Pliny says that in his day more of these stones were probably coloured artificially than naturally : and that in Arabia the Agate-nodules, if cooked seven days and seven nights in honey, will, when prepared by the artist, present veins, stripes and spots, which increase their effectiveness as ornaments.

This notion of honey purifying the Agate seems to be the foundation of the following beautiful idea : " All kinds of Precious Stones, cast into honey, become more brilliant thereby, each one according to its colour, and all persons become more acceptable in their vocation, when they join devotion with it : household cares are thereby rendered tranquil, the love of husband and wife more sincere, the service of the prince more faithful, and all kinds of business more easy and pleasant."—Extract from the Introduction to " The Devout Life" by S. Francis de Sales. Chap. III., par. 13. 1708.

THE BURNING AND COLOURING OF PRECIOUS STONES.

CERTAIN kinds of Precious Stones are often burnt or subjected to a high temperature, the heat exercising a very peculiar influence upon many stones, and in some cases modifying or utterly changing their colour.

Thus, the Oriental Carnelian owes its beautiful tint to artificial exposure to heat. The Pink Brazilian Topaz, too, derives its remarkable colour from burning.

One way of burning Precious Stones is to roll them up in a piece of sponge or tinder, and set fire to the enveloping material. Another method is to place them in a crucible, with either unslaked lime or iron-filings, and heat them until they are quite clear. Occasionally where a faulty stone with dark spots is burnt with sand and iron-filings, the spots are removed and the colour equalized ; but the process requires great care.

Rubies are occasionally infected with white spots which can be removed by burning. Many coloured Jar-goons have their tints more or less completely discharged on exposure to a high temperature. Smoky Rock-Crystal also, carefully heated in a crucible with lime, sand, or charcoal, will usually come out perfectly clear. The discharge of colour is evidently due to the decomposition of the organic matter, with which the stone was tinted.

DEFINITION OF THE TERM PRECIOUS STONE OR GEM.

AMONG the infinitely diversified products of Inorganic Nature, there are certain mineral substances which form a small class by themselves—standing apart from all others by the possession of such exceptional characters that they have always attracted the attention of persons endowed with taste and refinement. These minerals, distinguished as Precious Stones, are nine in number, namely :
—the Diamond. Chrysoberyl
Ruby. (True Cat's Eye).
Sapphire. Alexandrite.
Spinel. Opal.
Emerald. Turquoise.
The characters which have commended such stones in all ages, for purposes of personal ornament, are chiefly their brilliancy and colour, their durability and rarity. It is not sufficient, however, that a stone should possess only one of these characteristics, The mineralogist is familiar with many stones that are exquisite in colour, yet far too soft to be used for the'"practical purpose of decoration ; on the other hand, there may be stones of exceeding hardness

Buying the right stone

Gemstones have been sought after and treasured throughout history. They have been found in ruins dating several thousand years. They are valued as gifts symbolizing love.

Generally, the price of any gemstone is determined by: size, cut, quality (color/clarity/treatments), and type. Here are some questions to ask about quality:

* Has it been treated? (See treatments listed below)
* Is the stone natural or synthetic?
* Are there any noticeable scratches, chips or inclusions?
* Is the color even throughout the stone?
* How good is the color? (Is it vivid?)
* If you are buying the stones for earrings or cufflinks, are the stones well matched?

There are many ways that dealers treat gemstones. The savvy buyer asks lots of questions and hopefully tests the results. Here are some treatments to look for:

* Irradiation: It is common to irradiate Aquamarine, London Blue Topaz, Emerald, and Diamond as well as other stones. This treatment brings out color and removes imperfections. Many dealers know if the stones they are selling have been irradiated. Honest ones will tell you if they are aware of the treatment.
* Heat Treatment: Amethyst, Aquamarine, Ruby, Tanzanite and Topaz are often heated at high temperatures to enhance color.
* Dye: This is the most common treatment used. On clear stones, dye may be visible in cracks that are darker than the rest of the stone. Sometimes dye appears as a residue that rubs off or white patches. Lapis and Rose Quartz are commonly dyed. Amethyst and Citrine are often dyed. Black Onyx is permanently dyed in normal processing.
* Coatings: Jasper is often dipped in petroleum products to bring out color and to seal it. Emerald is oiled; turquoise is waxed.
* Fake stones: Some dealers will try passing off fake stones instead of natural ones. There are fake stones for most gemstones on the market. Always ask what stone something is if you are not certain. Honest dealers will tell you. If a stone looks too perfect it may be fake, irradiated or dyed. I avoid Laboratory made products are known as synthetics.

Tips on buying beads:

* Good sized holes (so can use a stronger thread)
* Evenly shaped beads (as appropriate)
* If the beads are being sold in a 16" strand -- I make sure it is 16" -- not 14" or 15" if possible.
* Look for the best quality stone (if buying real stones)
* Make sure beads are not cracked or chipped by the holes as this tears the thread
* Good color (so can create harmonious necklaces and matching earrings)

New Emerald Deposit in Canada

A geologist prospecting for a Canadian base-metals company stumbled on some gem quality emeralds, while prospecting in the Yukon Territory of Canada. Although details are sketchy, the company plans to partner with an established gemstone mining/marketing company to develop the deposit. The quality is said to rival that of Columbian gems. More details will emerge later.

History of the Ruby

To the ancients, ruby was known as "the king of gems". To some it was a representation of the sun. To others it represented integrity, devotion, happiness, healing, courage, romance, generosity, inspiration, and prosperity. According to legend, warriors implanted rubies under their skin to bring valor in battle. As a talisman, ruby would warn its owner against danger and disaster. Ground to a fine powder and placed on the tongue, it was believed by some ancient cultures to cure blood diseases, stop bleeding, ensure good health, bring peace, and treat indigestion.

In England, it was used for coronation rings and to this day enjoys popularity among royalty. Fergie, the Duchess of York received a ruby engagement ring from Prince Andrew.
The red aura of rubies makes them appear bigger than they really are. Rubies are the scarcest of all gemstones and command extremely high prices. Their average size is also generally less than any other gemstone's. Today, rubies have numerous applications: as styluses in turntables, as tiny bearings in expensive wristwatches, and in rod form, they form a crucial component at the laser's core.

Ruby is the birthstone of July. Since Ruby represents romance and devotion, it is an excellent choice for an engagement ring. It is the traditional wedding anniversary gift for a couple's 15th and 40th year.

The History of the Emerald

The fascinating bewitchment of the gorgeous green stone also atracted the Muzos Indians wich came within their permanent movement to the pregnant mountain ranges of gems, where they radicated

The splendor of the beautiful stone inspired in them the explanation of their genesis into a poetry story in a combination between reality and fantasy.

Innards mountains full of emeralds, an exhuberant nature filled with the most beautiful butterflies in the world, a great variety of poisoned serpents and a variety of animal life as well as a broken mountain by a river, was the paradise where their gods lived.

From that magical surrounder the couple that would live in the land had to take place.

The Legend says that the great creator of the territory and the Muzo's land was formed by a fabulous and areal God in a great inclinated shadow appearing over the sides of the Big River (Magdalena). Walking through slow movements throughout the inmensity of the space and depending in his slower or less detention of his movements, the creation of mountains and valeys took place.

"Are stopped in the borders of the sacred river and took a small amount of land where he formed the idols called Fura (woman) and Tena (man) and threw them to the running where they were purified mth foam kisses. They took breath and life and started the two first human beings". Love had tó be unique and exclusively between each one. This rule had to be ordered; otherwise, the infidelity would become for both into oldness and death .

The legend says that over the centuries the couple habitated the land until once, over the same sides of the river (west) were are appeared, a young man from a rare race named Zarbí showed up looking for a privileged flower that had in its fragrance the ease for every pain and in its essences, the cure to all illnesses.

The young man travelled during various days over the mountains, crossed rivers and hiked trees in search of the precious flower. Fura, seeing that his movements were in vain, of fered to travel along with him.

As the days passed by, the feeling between both changed and suddenly they fell in love . Finding a place into the jungle, they started their unfaithfulness. The accusation of Fura's conscience became into a sadness feeling and her oldness started to show up each and every day. This was a proof of her lack.

Tena then understood that the sacred law of the unique and exclusively love was being violated by Fura and so she had to die. As a punishment, she had to sustain during three days in her knees, the mortal body of her husband in order to clean with tears the remainings. She had to look and suffer the horrendouITOCOs process of human decomposition.

Tena killed himself by his sharpened weapon pntting it across his heart once he was laying beside Fura`s knees. Before the eternal absence, Tena search for his revenge and converted Zarbí into a naked rocky terrain over a long distance land, so that Tena could hit him with rays of branches from Muzo's sky, the solar mansion.

Zarbí could defend himself by taking away his innards. His blood was converted into a torrent of water that flooded Muzo's land. Once he observed Fura with Tena's body, the water became more torrential until both bodies were separated apart forever and were left one in front of the other looking at each other into rocky terrains divided an outrageous current of water.

The legend says that "Tena's death was so painful to Fura, that her screams of pain perforated the echoes of the silent jungle and broke into millions of multicolor butterflies. Her tears, her torrent of tears were transformed by the sun into a mountain rage of emeralds".

Fura and Tena were finally forgiven by the god Are, which put them a "permanent guard of storms, rays and serpens", allowing that the waters of the Minero river ( Zarbí's blood), "discovers, clarifies, cleans and shines Muzo's emeralds. Fura's unfaithful and repentant tears"

The folklore of Gems

Throughout the centuries jewelry has been created and worn by people of different cultures. Every culture had it gemstones that they valued and they attributed a special meaning to each. Today the list of precious and semi-precious gemstones is very large and each one has a history and folklore associated with it. The Quality Jewelry Directory has created a list of the most popular gemstones and gives a brief outline of each.


Alexandrite: One of the most valued and sought after gemstones is Alexandrite. Born in metamorphic conditions that bring together specific chemical elements to produce the mineral chrysoberyl, the gemstone has been valued by jewelers throughout the ages for its unique ability to change color from green to shades of red or very soft purple when exposed to daylight and incandescent light. Russia is the primary source for most gem quality alexandrite and was named after the Russian Tsar Alexander II. With a rich folklore history, alexandrite was thought to impart wisdom, creativity and to strengthen a individuals insight. Listed on the Mohs Scale of Hardness at 8.5, it is a perfect gemstone to design into high quality jewelry.

Ruby: Ruby is a beautiful gemstone that is part of the mineral family corundum. Corundum is found within crystals of metamorphic rock and is considered to be the second hardest mineral next to diamonds. Corundums come in different varieties and can be considered a sapphire in different colors. Some of the best rubies are in true red and come from Burma. They can also be found in other areas throughout the world, such as Australia, Kenya, Pakistan, Sri Lanka and the United States. With its well known sturdiness, it makes a perfect gemstone for jewelry. Often set with sapphires and diamonds, it is a perfect stone to pair up. The ruby was thought to have mystical powers and was often worn as a Talisman to ward off great evil. The ruby's color was often associated with blood and was thought to have the ability to stop bleeding and to heal ailments associated with it.

Sapphires: Sapphires belong to the mineral family of corundum and are found in weathered alluvial deposits from pyroclastic flows. Most sapphires are blue stones which range from slight blue to a deep indigo coloration. The most valued of the sapphires are ones that have the medium blue coloration and these are referred to "cornflower blue". Sapphires come in many colors and these are often called "fancy sapphires". Only in the case of red, are corundums called rubies. Sapphires are found throughout the world but primarily in Australia, United States. Sri Lanka, Thailand, Burma, Kampuchea, Kenya and Tanzania. The name "sapphire" comes from multiple sources. In Persian, it is "safir" and was associated with Saturn. In Latin, "sappheiros" for the island where sapphires were mined. Ancient folklore is rich with stories related to sapphires. Seen as a stone that changes its hue when the wearer was engaged in impure behavior, it was given to the wearer to help impart fidelity. Also thought to bring inner peace to the soul and spiritual enlightenment.

Amethyst: Amethyst is a purple colored gemstone that is from the mineral "quartz" and derives it beautiful purple color from the iron impurities within the crystal. Throughout the world, amethyst is primarily found in Mexico, Brazil, Canada, Uruquay, Madagascar and Australia. Amethysts occur as long prismatic crystals that form six-sided pyramids end to end and grow in druzes within crystalline crusts or in sandstone formations. Amethysts are believed to bring the power of peace and calm and are often used in meditation. Due to its rich color and calming effects it is used to relieve stress from every day work and to relieve headaches due to tension or migraine headaches. Amethyst is often seen to encourage deeper understanding, encourage love and awareness. Amethyst was often worn to bed to produce and encourage peace and beautiful dreams. Amethysts are adorned in some of the richest displays of jewelry such as the British Crown Jewels. Catherine the Great was very fond of amethyst as were the Egyptians.

Pearl: Pearl is the modern birthstone for the month of June. The beautiful pearl is the only gem that is created from a living organism, the oyster. The process of pearl formation is actually a reaction to an irritant within the oyster itself. This irritation causes a material called nacre to envelope the irritant and over time creates a beautiful pearl. Pearls come in different varieties such as cultured pearls, freshwater pearls, tahitian pearls, black pearls. Other varieties of pearls are barogues which display an irregular appearance and Mabe pearls that are cultivated blister pearls. The name "pearl", comes from the latin word, "perula" or small pear. The Chinese were the first to cultivate pearls in saltwater, but over the years they were cultivated in saltwater and freshwater alike. Today, some of the finest cultivated pearls come from Japan. Pearls are associated with purity, wisdom through experience and perfection.

Emeralds: Emeralds are actually the green version of the mineral beryl. This type of beryl contains small amounts of chromium and iron which give them their unique color. Emeralds are commonly found in sedimentary rock that has undergone changes in temperature and pressure. Emeralds can be found in the Russian Federation, United States, Pakistan, Norway, India, Malagasy, and Australia. Some of the best emeralds are found Colombia and these crystals exhibit the best quality for their size. The name emerald comes from the Greek term "smaragdos", which loosely translates to "green gemstone". The quality in the emerald is determined by it's clarity and it's deep grass green coloration which exhibits a slight hint of blue. Emeralds have a deep history and folklore. The history of emeralds can be traced to the ancient Babylonians and the Egyptians where tools have been found in ancient emerald mines where the Queen Cleopatra's emeralds originated. The Incas also mined emeralds and the largest and highest quality stones were once worn by nobility. Unfortunately, many emeralds were lost to time, due to invasions, greed or through the inclusion of these gems in private collections.

Diamonds: Diamonds are the hardest known natural material and have other qualities that make the diamond a true king of gems. Based upon the element "carbon", diamonds are actually similar to graphite, but like carbon they have a unique crystalline composition. The dense atomic structure of diamonds makes them extremely valuable in jewelry but also in modern day industrial applications. Diamonds are formed deep underground where pressure and temperature are critical for their formation. In ancient times, India was the only known source of diamonds, until after the 1800 century, deposits were discovered all over the world. Diamonds come from a variety of sources but the primary deposits are from large openings in the Earth called volcanic pipes. These are often called kimberlite pipes. The vast majority of all diamonds originate in Africa but other significant finds have been discovered in Russia and in the northwestern territories of Canada.

Turquoise: One gemstone that is very popular is turquoise. Turquoise is a copper aluminum phosphate mineral that is found in locations that have high concentrations of copper. Turquoise is created from a variety of natural process and is found in areas that are arid in climate. These climate conditions are important in weathering and oxidation of copper deposits and producing the conditions that support the creation of turquoise. Turquoise can also be created from hydrothermal actions, leaching and precipitation of surrounding copper deposits to form turquoise. Turquoise comes in variety of shades such as blue-green, and green with flecks of gray with traces of iron and chrome. The best quality turquoise is "sky blue" or often called "robin egg" blue. Turquoise is found throughout the world, but comes primarily from the United States, Iran, Afghanistan, China and Mexico.

Topaz: Topaz is a silicate mineral that has been used as a gemstone for centuries. Topaz is considered the hardest of silicate minerals but has interesting properties that make it similar to diamonds in its ability to be cleaved into smaller increments. Unlike diamonds, the crystals of topaz can come in very large sizes. Topaz is usually found in pegmatities, quartz veins and inside of granites and rhyolites. Topaz in its true form is clear, but can come in a large assortment of colors due to various impurities within the crystal lattice. These colors can range from red, green, orange, brown and yellow. Topaz in its natural state forms short or long multi-faceted crystals and is prized as a mineral specimen in its natural state. Topaz is located throughout the world but is primarily found in Russia, Australia, Africa, Mexico, Brazil and Pakistan and some of the best quality and prized topaz deposits are found in Brazil. Certain regions of the United States have topaz deposits, most notably in San Diego County and the Thomas Mountain Range in Utah which is renowned for its beautiful blue topaz.

If you are shopping for jewelry look to the Quality Jewelry Directory to help you find what you desire.

Additional information can be found in other areas of our website: Gemstones, Jewelry Cleaning, Birthstone information and Anniversary Stones.

The above list is small breakdown of each gemstones history and folklore. The list is not intended to be the end all of gemstone information and should not be looked upon as such. Each gemstone has it's own mineral data, history and folklore and all data cannot be written about each one. It is recommended to seek other websites for deeper knowledge on each.

Amethyst Facts | Amethyst Origions | Amethyst History

Just the facts

Colored by iron, Amethyst is a variety of macrocrystalline Quartz that occurs in transparent pastel roses to deep purples.

Like many other gemstones, the quality of Amethyst varies according to its source. Amethyst from the Americas can be found in large sizes as opposed to African Amethyst (typically mined in Madagascar and Zambia), which is sometimes small but carries a higher saturation in color. Dark, highly saturated Amethyst is also found in Australia. The now historic Siberian variety is deep purple with occasional red and blue flashes and commands the highest price. However, the most prolific origin is Brazil, and if we were to believe Dionysus' wine was indeed the source of its color, Brazilian Amethyst would have been born from the finest vintages.

First appearing in Europe in 1727, Brazilian Amethyst soon became highly fashionable and expensive. Amethyst was very popular in France and England during the 18th century and many affluent families invested large amounts of money in this gemstone. For example, a necklace of Amethysts was purchased at a very high price for Queen Charlotte (1744-1818), wife of George III of England.

The chief mining areas for Brazilian Amethyst are Minas Gerais, Bahia and Maraba. Neighboring Uruguay offers spectacularly beautiful varieties of Amethyst that were only discovered a few years ago.

Rose de France Amethyst (also known as Lavender Amethyst) is the name for Brazilian Amethyst of a pastel lilac pinkish hue. Rose de France Amethyst was a very popular Victorian gem and while Rose de France Amethyst frequently appears in antique jewelry, it is currently experiencing a revival in popularity as part of a general awakening to the beauty of pastel gems.

Multi Color Amethyst beautifully melds the regal purple lavenders of Amethyst with the ice whites of White Quartz in one gem. Multi Color Amethyst occurs because of environmental changes during formation. At different times, the color-causing element (iron) was incorporated into the crystal, causing different color layers. Purposely cut to showcase this feature, Multi Color Amethyst is generally judged by the balanced contrast between its colors. Cutting the gem so both colors show is sometimes challenging for cutters. While notoriously difficult to cut consistently, a well cut multicolored gem is a real delight.



--
BE GREEN, LEAVE IT ON THE SCREEN.

Our Facebook Page